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Summary of the First Conference of the Parties for the Minamata Convention on Mercury

24th-29th September, Geneva, Switzerland.

The Zero Mercury Working Group (ZMWG) closely followed the First Conference of the Parties for the Minamata Convention on Mercury (COP1) in Geneva, Switzerland, 24th-29th of September 2017 and intervened as appropriate[1]. We were pleased to see the COP1 reached consensus on pending matters from prior meetings of the Intergovernmental Negotiation Committee (INC) which resulted in establishing an effective Convention operational framework for achieving significant mercury reductions.

Our main priorities for COP1 included adoption of forms and guidance that was approved at INC 7, and addressing the issues of reporting, waste thresholds, interim storage guidelines, effectiveness evaluation, and matters for future action, which included the following decisions.

  • Article 3 guidance on identifying mercury stocks, and the forms/instructions for complying with mercury trade consent and related certification requirements;
  • The product and process exemption forms and associated register of exemptions under Article 6 of the Convention; a registrar will be kept by the Secretariat and these will also be available to the public
  • Article 8 (air emissions) guidance on BAT/ BEP, options for existing facility control requirements, preparing emissions inventories, and selection of “relevant sources” within the specified source categories; and
  • The Guidance for preparing the ASGM National Action Plan (NAP) under article 7.

COP1 also saw significant progress concerning various other ZMWG priorities, including :

Reporting:          Forms were adopted for use by Parties to report back on the measures undertaken to meet Convention obligations and on the effectiveness of those measures.  In particular, ZMWG most welcomed the decision for a shorter reporting cycle for supply and trade, reporting per year data on a biennial basis. For other obligations, Parties will report every four years. It was also agreed that each Party will submit its first biennial report by 31 December 2019 and its first full report by December 2021. Parties are also encouraged to submit an electronic form,  and the Secretariat is requested to make the Parties electronic reports available.

Furthermore, it was agreed that Parties would provide access to their data related to mercury emissions, under Article 8. Parties would also provide the rational on how they plan to ensure that facilities responsible for at least 75% of the emissions from a source category are subject to controls.

Waste Thresholds:          COP1 established an intercessional work group to further elaborate on waste thresholds, building on a document introduced by Japan. As recommended by NRDC/ZMWG, the terms of reference for the working group were focused more on determining which mercury wastes warrant thresholds rather than assuming thresholds are appropriate for all wastes. The expert group will identify the types of waste that fall within the categories specified in paragraph 2 of Article 11, provide related information; prioritising the types of waste identified that are most relevant for the establishment of waste thresholds, and identify possible approaches to establishing any needed thresholds for those prioritised waste for consideration at COP2. We were also pleased to see COP1 approving the participation of civil society within the working group, another ZMWG priority.

Interim Storage:                             COP1 requested the Secretariat to undertake further revision of the draft guidelines through input from relevant experts, including technical experts from the Basel Convention and present a revised draft for consideration at COP2. Provisional use of the current draft guidelines is encouraged.

Effectiveness Evaluation:             COP1 adopted a draft road map for establishing arrangements both for providing comparable monitoring data and elements of an effectiveness evaluation framework, as ZMWG had sought.  To that end an ad hoc group of experts was established including 25 experts nominated by the Parties – 5 per region, as well as 10 civil society experts, including NGOs, as observers.

Matters for Future Action (Article 3) - (Article 14):              Several matters were brought up for consideration. Under Article 3, trade in mercury compounds was one of several issued identified for future consideration by the COP. In regards to Article 14 – Capacity building, technical assistance and technology transfer, Parties and other stakeholder were invited to submit relevant information on capacity building, technical assistance and technology transfer for the Secretariat to compile and present at COP2.

Despite progress made, challenges remain, both related to the location and structure of the Minamata Convention Secretariat and the Memorandum of Understanding regarding the financial mechanism of the Convention with the Global Environmental Facility (GEF). The Secretariat will be temporarily located in Geneva, with further review of arrangements at COP2.

In summary, the final road map is now in place to ‘zero down’ global mercury pollution, but critical work remains.   ZMWG looks forward to a productive second meeting of the Conference of the Parties, which will be held in Geneva 19-23 November 2018.   



[1] All ZMWG interventions are available on our website http://www.zeromercury.org/index.php?option=com_content&;;view=article&id=309:unenvironment-minamata-mercury-cop1-24-29-september-2017-geneva-switzerland&catid=54:developments-main-category&Itemid=104

Batteries PDF Print

Manufacturers around the world have long used mercury in batteries to prevent the buildup of hydrogen gas, which can cause the battery to bulge and leak.

Button Cell Batteries:

Button cell batteries are miniature batteries in the shape of a coin or button that are used to provide power for small portable electronic devices.  The four major technologies used for miniature batteries are: lithium, zinc air, alkaline, and silver oxide.  Button cell batteries can contain 0-25 mg of mercury (and sometimes more). Lithium miniature batteries contain no intentionally-added mercury.  However, small amounts of mercury are still added to most zinc air, alkaline and silver oxide miniature batteries in order to prevent the formation of internal gases that can cause leakage.  Zinc air batteries are used mainly in hearing aids; silver oxide batteries are used in watches and cameras; and alkaline manganese batteries are used in digital thermometers, calculators, toys and a myriad of other products requiring a compact power source.

Mercuric Oxide Batteries:

In mercuric oxide batteries, mercury is used as an electrode rather than an additive to control gas buildup. These are rather specialty batteries and are often used in hospitals, military facilities and commercial applications.. Those can use more than 25 mg of mercury. The mercury accounts for up to 40% of the battery weight and cannot be reduced without reducing the energy output of the battery. Mercuric oxide button cells once were widely used in hearing aids but now are prohibited in most countries. Larger mercuric oxide batteries still are produced for military and medical equipment where a stable current and long service life is essential.

Separate collection systems for batteries are in place in many countries around the world.

However, there are still problems in collection, which can be resolved mainly through political support for mercury-free batteries.

 

Relevant legislation and NGO policy work on batteries:

In Europe

Directive 2006/66/EC on batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators,  in the EU, set maximum mercury limits for alkaline and button cell batteries, and prohibit the marketing of mercury oxide batteries, although there may still be significant quantities of the latter that transit the EU in trade flows.

                            2012 - Study on potential for reducing mercury pollution from batteries

 After also our continuous pressure, the EC  decided talso carry out a study on the batteries – and more specifically the potential phase out of button cell batteries containing mercury, as part of the revised EU mercury strategy.To that end the consultant BIOS who is carrying out the study on dental amalgam was asked to also look at the battery issue.

A draft report is expected to be published soon. A stakeholder meeting is also expected to take place in March 2012 - the draft report will be presented, stakeholders will give input, and after that the consultant will have to put together the final report.

Globally

 In the US

In the US, federal legislation exists on the Management of batteries - In 1996, the U.S. Congress passed the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act (9 pp, 134K, about PDF) and many states passed legislation prohibiting incineration and landfilling of mercury-containing and lead-acid batteries

In terms of regulating mercury content in batteries some US states have passed relevant Bills. For more information visit